Aunt Bette's Homemade Pecan Pie
Rockin’ Rocky Road Ice Cream
Tom’s Heavenly Apple Strudel
Joe’s Divine Butter Tarts
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PORTUGAL

HISTORY

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5500 BC

Neolithic cultures arrive from Andalusia, introducing agriculture, pottery and soft metal works

1000 - 500 BC

beginning ofCeltic cultures settle in the North and Phoenicians and Carthaginians reach Southern Portugal the Iron Age, which sees the arrival of the Celts

200 BC

Roman dominance spreads from the South and East of the Iberian peninsula after the second Punic war while Celtic people occupy the West

150 - 140 BC

Lusitanian resistance against the Romas lead by Viriathus, who is assassinated about 140BC. Roman forces cross the Douro river and defeat the Lusitanians

300 AC

Christianity reaches Portugal and with delay Galicia

406

Foreign invaders come to Galicia and Northern Portugal and establish the Kingdom of Suebi while the Visigothic Kingdom expands from Southern France to occupy the rest of the Iberian peninsula. The Visigothic Kingdom extinguished the Kingdom of Suebi in 469

711

Muslim forces invade from Gibraltar and are met by only little Gothic resistance. The whole Iberian peninsula is under islamic rule

756

The Emirate of Umayyad is set up in Cordoba

868

The first frontier territory of Portucale was established by Vimares Peres. The finding of the supposed remains of St James in Santiago de Compostela see a restoration of Christianity

11 - 13th century

battle for dominance between the territory of Portugal, the kingdom of Leon and Castille and the Moors

1185

formal establishment of the Portuguese border on the Targus, rise of the Templar and Cistercians, who brought agriculture and architecture to central Portugal

1254

Portuguese King Afonso III officially reunites the Cortes, the kingdoms general assembly

1255

Lisbon becomes the capital of Portugal

1272

Afonso III conquers Faro from the Moors and ends the Portuguese reconquista

1279 - 1325

Dinis of Portugal, son of Afonso III, brings Portugal closer to Western Europe and sets favourable conditions for agriculture, trade and ship building. The University of Coimbra is founded in 1290

1297

the borders between Portugal and Castile are defined in the Treaty of Alcanizes

1386

After a century of political intrigues, conspiracy and civil war, Joao I defeats Castile and claims the Portuguese throne, becoming the founder of a new dynasty in 1385. The Treaty of Windsor is signed between Portugal and England and truce is arranged with Castile in 1387

15th and 16th century

great age of Portuguese expansion with the discoveries of Madeira (1419), the Azores (1427), Cape Verde Islands (1456)  and the exploration of the West African coast

1494

Treaty of Tordesillas signed between Spain and Portugal, dividing the colonisable world into two halves

1498

Vasco da Gama reaches India through navigation around Africa

1506

hundreds of Jews who were recently forced to Christianity are massacred in Lisbon

1580

Spanish troops invade Portugal after the death of King Cardinal Henrique I and Antonio of Portugal, the acclaimed King of Portugal, takes refuge in England

1581

King Philip II of Spain is acclaimed as King Philip II of Portugal. Portugal loses its independence in the union of the crowns

1598 - 1640

Portuguese resentment against Spanish rule grows by the decline of trade due to Spanish foreign wars, the appointment to Spaniards to Portuguese offices and the levying of tax to sustain war

1640

nationalist revolution on December 1, driving out the Spanish garrisons and crowning the Duke of Braganca as King Joao IV

1665

after struggling to hold the independence from Spain for nearly three decades, the Portuguese defeat the Spanish army with the support of the French and English at the battle of Monte Claros. The Lisbon treaty with Spain is signed in 1668

1693

first discovery of gold in Minas Gerais in Brazil, leading to the extraction of considerable wealth towards the end of the 17th century. King Joao V indulges in extravagant building and spending while neglecting the national agriculture, infrastructure or industrial development in the early 18th century

1750 - 77

Age of Enlightment - extensive reformation of the textile and fishing industry, wine trade and the overseas sugar and diamond trade und King Jose and his powerful chief minister Sebastião de Melo

1755

Great earthquake of Portugal, destroying much of Lisbon and many villages in Alentejo and the Algarve

1807

The French invade Portugal under Napoleon Bonaparte and the Portuguese Royal Family flees to Brazil. The English defeat the French at the Battle of Vimeiro in 1808 and subsequent attacks from the French on the Iberian peninsula end in defeat at the hands of the English

1814

Peace between France and Portugal. Portugal is governed by an English regency as the royal family still resides in Brazil

1820

LIberal Revolution against the British-led regency and a provisional government is established. King Joao returns from Brazil in 1821, accepting restrictions to his powers and a new constitution outlined by the Cortes.

1822

Portugals first constitution is ratified and Brazil declares independence. The country is split into liberals and traditional absolutists supporting the restoration of the powers to the king. Civil war breaks out after the two sons of King Joao, Pedro and Miguel, seek power in Portugal.

1834

Miguel finally capitulates and is sent to exile in Genoa. Portugal is bankrupt after a lengthy civil war and the crown lands are taken over by the state to pay the national debt. Maria II becomes Queen of Portugal after the death of her father Dom Pedro

1851

Portugal enters the Age of Regeneration to modernize the country and build road infrastructure. Portugal’s first railway line opens in 1856. Portugal turns to Africa for its expansion aspirations

1890

Britain issues an ultimatum to Portugal demanding the Portuguese withdrawal of the area between Angola and Mozambique. King Carlos agrees to withdraw, shacking public opinion in Portugal, compromising the monarchy and fueling the Republican movement, which is subsequently gaining more power

1908

Republicans assassin King Carlos and his son Luis Filipe, Carlos second son Manuel becomes king

1910

Lisbon and Porto vote in favour of the Republic. A revolt by armed civilians, soldiers and sailors overthrows the monarchy and the Portuguese Republic is officially proclaimed in Lisbon. Manuel flees to Britain and remains in exile until his death in 1932. The young republic struggles in its early years and sees 45 governments, 8 presidents and 26 attempted coups over 16 years

1926

a military coup ends the short democratic era in Portugal and general António Óscar Carmona becomes president and prime minister. António de Oliveira Salazar is appointed minister of finance with full powers over expenditure. He becomes prime minister in 1932

1933

Portugal is declared as a unitary, corporatist republic and all seats in the assembly go to government supporters. The government establishes a system of censorship and political imprisonment, bans strikes and prohibits political parties. Portugal slides into political and economical isolation. Portuguese colonies are exploited to improve the living standards at home

1961 - 64

Portuguese colonies strive for independence and wars erupt in all colonies, leading to Portugal losing much of its colonial influence

1968

Salazar resigns after a stroke, Marcello Caetano becomes prime minister, but is unable to reverse the colonial wars in Africa and the economic misery

1974

a military coup supported by the middle-class, later known as the “Carnation Revolution”, ends dictatorship

1975

independence is granted to all Portuguese colonies in Africa and major industries and big properties are nationalized by government

1976

free elections take place in Portugal for the first time in 40 years and a new constitution is approved. The following years focus on the economic stabilization of the country and efforts to join the EEC

1986

Portugal is admitted to the ECC

1999

Portugal becomes one of the founding members of the Euro