Bryggen, Bergen, Norway

NORWAY

HISTORY

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HISTORIC TIMELINE

Norway’ history has been shaped by constant changes in the ruling of the country, the harsh living conditions of the people in the very North, but also by proud Norwegians who love their country. The earliest settlements date back to 10,000BC. After the ice began to melt and glaciers shrank after the last ice age, hunters came to Southern Norway from the East and settled along the coast. The rich fishing waters attracted settlers in the North and early settlement were established in areas with possible land use. In the early Christian centuries, struggles between tribes created small kingdoms scattered across Norway.

800 AC

beginning of the Viking era as Norwegian Vikings raid other parts of Europe and establish settlement on the Orkney and Hybrid Islands, Ireland and Northwest England

1000

Viking pioneers reach North America, but fail to establish lasting settlements

1015 - 30

Olaf Haraldson rules Norway, nearly succeeding in uniting the different tribes, but he is killed in battle in 1030. Christianity establishes itself in Norway after Haraldson is sanctified 

11th century

1046 - 66

King Harald Hardråde founds Oslo, stabilizes the border to Sweden and invades England, but is killed in battle in 1066

1217 - 63

Håkon IV rules Norway, golden era of Norwegian culture, strengthening Norwegian unity and Norwegian rule in Greenland, trade treaty with England

1266

Håkons son Magnus Lagabøte sells the Hybrids and the Isle of Man to Scotland, ending the conflict with Scotland. Promotion of trade with the German and Baltic Hanse

1349

the plague kills half of the Norwegian population

1397

unification of Norway, Sweden and Denmark in the Kalmar Treaty. Sweden leaves the union in 1523, but Norway remained under Danish rule for another three centuries

1536

Reformation spreads across Norway from Denmark and Protestantism took hold, leading to a decline in Norwegian culture

1588 - 1644

Christian IV revives Norwegian culture and trade by establishing the port at Kristiansand and introducing trading routes to Southern Europe, bringing great returns in the 18th century 

1624

Oslo is destroyed by fire, but subsequently rebuilt under the the name Christiania

1814

Napoleon suffers defeat to Great Britain and Sweden, subsequently Denmark, as an ally of France, is forced to withdraw from Norway. Norway draws up their own constitution on May 17, but is ceded into a new alliance with Sweden

18th century

Norway struggles for independence for much of the 19th century, leading to an economic decline and mass immigration to the US. A new national movement rose towards the end of the 19th century, reflecting in literature, music and politics

1880

the Norwegian parliament pushes for home-rule, forcing concessions from the Swedish king in 1884 and granting voting rights to Norwegian men in 1898

1905

the union with Sweden is dissolved and the Norwegian people vote in favor of independence. Norway expands trading routes and builds the fourth biggest sea fleet in the world, most of which is lost in the First World War, despite Norway’s neutrality 

1913

Norwegian women gain voting rights

1940

German troops invade Norway in April and occupy all ports. King Håkon flees to London. Norway suffers under the fascists

1945

Håkon returns after the surrender of Germany and rebuilding begins. The economy flourishes again after four years

1949

Norway joins the NATO

1972

Norway votes not to join the EU. The economy experiences a massive boost after the discovery of rich oil resources in the Northern sea, leading to an establishment of a generous social support system, excellent infrastructure and a future fond for the time after the oil boom

1994

Norways again votes against joining the EU

2005

Norway celebrates 100 years of independence

Histroy Norway

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