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IRELAND

HISTORY

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HISTORIC TIMELINE

2500BC

construction of the Newgrange passage tomb

500BC

beginning of the Iron Age, which sees the arrival of the Celts

300 - 450AD

Irish warriors raid Roman Britain, leading to settlements being established on the Western coasts of Scotland and Wales

432

The supposed year St Patrick is sent to Ireland. Irish monasteries spread and flourished over the next 150 years

795

The Vikings begin to raid Ireland. By 837, they begin to establish settlement along the Eastern coast

841

The Vikings set up a permanent settlement at Dublin and Annagassen and expand their power to the South and West by taking Waterford in 914 and Limerick in 1920. Gradually, the Vikings became traders in close association with the Irish

1014

Brian Bóruma defeats the Scandinavian allies of Máel Mórda, king of Leinster, at the Battle of Clontarf, bringing Viking domination to an end. A period of political unsettlement follows as High Kings struggle for acknowledgement among the provincial kings

1155

Henry II of England is granted permission by pope Adrian IV to invade Ireland. Anglo-Normans have conquered substantial parts of Eastern Ireland

1171

Henry II arrives to Ireland and the Irish kings recognize his supremacy

13th century

King John establishes a civil government independent of the feudal lords which becomes more fully organized during the 13th century. English law is introduced and an Irish parliament developed, which is representing the Anglo-Irish only

14th century

English control is tightening with increased power and land given to the Anglo-Irish who are becoming increasingly Irish on the other hand by adopting Gealic customs and marrying Irish women. The Anglo-Irish Earldoms of Desmonde, Kildare and Ormonde are created

1366

Introduction of the Statute of Kilkenny, permitting intermarriage or Irish alliances. The Irish in territories outside English control (the "pale") were declared enemies

15th century

Ireland is ruled by the three great Earls dominating government in Dublin. By the end of the century the Earl of Kildare gain power through dynastic alliances and the chief Gaelic and Anglo-Irish lords, which is seen as a threat to English supremacy

1534

Kildare is dismissed by Henry VIII to re-establish direct English control. Catholicism is out of favour and reformation starts to make its way. Monasteries start to close in the English controlled territory in the following years

1540 - 43

Sir Anthony Saint Leger introduces the “surrender and regrant” policy, forcing Irish earls and lords to submit to the King of England in order to keep their land

1541

King Henry VIII is made King of Ireland by the Irish parliament. The later 16th century sees the enforced settlement of the Anglican church, rebellions supported by the Catholic Church and the Spanish are unsuccessful and lead to a tightening of English rule

1610

Beginning of the Ulster plantation. A confederation forms in Kilkenny to rise against the English

1649

Oliver Cromwell arrives to Dublin as commander in chief and his nine month campaign crushes all resistance. The following years see the confiscation of land from anybody involved in the rebellion and driving the Anglo-Irish off their land to Connacht. The confiscated land is given to Cromwells soldiers and creditors of the Commonwealth

1660 - 65

 The Act of Settlement of 1662 enables Protestants loyal to the crown to recover their lands after Cromwells death and the Act of Explanation 1665 partially compensates Roman-Catholics for losses under the commonwealth though preventing Catholics to gain political influence

1688

After fleeing from England to France, King James arrives to Ireland and repeals the the Acts of Settlement and Explanation to provide restoration for expropriated Catholics

1690

King William III claims the throne from James and defeats James at the battle of Boyne. Catholics are pushed out from parliament and public office as a consequence and anti-catholic penal laws are introduced around the turn of the century

1772

The American revolution greatly influences Irish politics and brings some relief to Catholic oppression. The late 18th century sees some rights re-established for the Catholic Irish, including the right to take out leases and buy land, trade with the English colonies and to practise law

1798

Rising of the United Irishmen in May and June lead by Theobald Wolfe Tone, who is captured in November and convicted for high treason and sentenced to death

1801

Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland tightens British grip on Ireland. Further small concessions are granted to the Catholic Irish as the desire for homerule grows

1845 - 48

The great famine, roughly one million people die from starvation and even more Irish immigrated in the course of the 19th and 20th century to England and North America. The Fenian movement spreads across Irish migrant groups, giving sympathy to Irish Home Rule

1870

Isaac Butt launches the home rule movement, but a motion is defeated. The Irish Republican Brotherhood withdraws their support for Home Rule in 1876

1879

Formation of the Irish Land League advocating for tenure, fair rents and the freedom to sell for tenants. The demands are met in the Land Act of 1881, but at the same time, the Land League is declared illegal and its leaders imprisoned, including Charles Steward Parnell, Leader of the Home Rule Party. The leaders were released from prison in 1882

1891

Death of Parnell and John Remond becomes the leader of the Parnellites advocating for Home Rule. The late 19th century sees the development of a cultural nationalist movement, which sees the formation of the Gaelic league and the reviving of Irish language, music and culture

1905

Arthur Griffith founds Sinn Fein. Revival of the Fenian Irish Republican Brotherhood. The homerule movement gains more speed and support. Several Home Rule bills are rejected by the House of Lords in the following 10 years

1913

Establishment of the Ulster Voluntary Force, Irish Citizen Army and Irish Volunteers. The proposal of excluding Ulster from the Home Rule bill is first introduced

1914

Nationalist and unionist forces bring in arms and Ireland seems close to civil war. The third home rule bill passes the Commons and receives royal assent but is suspended after Britain declares war on Germany on the 4th of August

1918

Sinn Fein wins 73 seats in the general election, virtually extinguishing the home rule party. The Republicans refuse to take their seat in Westminster, but set up their provisional government instead. 

1919

The Irish volunteers become the Irish Republican Army and the War of Independence begins, characterized by IRA ambushes and attacks on police barracks and brutal British reprisals. A large proportion of the Irish police force resigns and is replaced by British recruits, known as the Black and Tans

1921

A truce is declared between the IRA and British army on July 9th and the Anglo-Irish Treaty is signed on December 6, proposing the split of Ireland into two self-governing areas

1922

The Dail Eireann approves the treaty on January 7 with strong opposition from Republicans led by Eamon de Valera. The IRA splits and civil war breaks out in June. Michael Collins, chairman of the provisional government,  is killed in an ambush in August. The Dail approves the constitution of the free state in October and it is ratified by the constitution act in the UK in December

1932

After launching Fianna Fail in 1926, Eamon de Valera becomes president in Ireland and heads the government until 1948. His politics are strongly characterized by Irish-British relations and further efforts to end British influence in Ireland completely

1936

The IRA is declared illegal in the Free State

1949

Ireland left the Commonwealth

1950s

economic stagnation sees the development of an economic development plan, forming the formation for the modernization of a deeply conservative society and poor country

1973

Ireland joins the EEC, which brings social and economic change, bringing benefits to farmers and revolutionizing the infrastructure. The EEC membership also brings greater independence from Britain

1990

Mary Robinson becomes Ireland’s first female president

1990s

the economic position improves significantly with low inflation and reduced deficits The high technology sector fuels the economic boom in the late 1990s, which becomes known as the Celtic Tiger

2002

Ireland joins the eurozone

2011

Queen Elizabeth undertakes a four day visit to Ireland in May, being the first British monarch to set foot on Ireland in over 100 years

History Ireland